y Thomas Goessler and Yamuna Kaluarachchi



Over the last decades, population growth in urban areas and the subsequent rise in demand for housing have resulted in significant space and housing shortages.

This paper investigates the influence of smart technologies on small urban dwellings to make them flexible, adaptive and personalised. The study builds on the hypothesis that adaptive homes and smart technology could increase efficiency and space usage up to two to three times compared to a conventional apartment.

The present study encompasses a comprehensive semi-systematic literature review that includes several case studies of smart adaptive homes demonstrating various strategies that can be employed to enhance the functionality of small spaces while reducing the physical and psychological limitations associated with them.

These strategies involve incorporating time-dependent functions and furniture, as well as division elements that can adapt to the changing needs of users in real-time. This review further categorises types of flexibility and adaptation regarding the size of the moving elements, the time that the transformation takes and whether it is performed manually (by a human) or automatically (by a machine).

Results show that smart and adaptive technology can increase space efficiency by reducing the need for separate physical spaces for different activities. Smart technology substantially increases the versatility and multifunctionality of a room in all three dimensions and allows for adaptation and customisation for a variety of users.



adaptive homes; efficient spaces; flexibility; home automation; interactive architecture; micro-living; personalisation; resilience; smart homes; space shortage