Euichul Hwang 1,Gyuyong Kim, Gyeongcheol Choe, Minho Yoon, Minjae Son 1,Dongkyun Suh, Hamin Eu and Jeongsoo Nam
In this study, the effects of heating rate and compressive strength on the spalling behavior of single-sided heated ring-restrained concrete with compressive strengths of 60 and 100 MPa were investigated.
The vapor pressure and restrained stress inside the concrete were evaluated under fast- and slow-heating conditions. Regardless of the heating rate, the concrete vapor pressure and restrained stress increased as the temperature increased, and it was confirmed that spalling occurred in the 100-MPa concrete.
Specifically, it was found that moisture migration and restrained stress inside the concrete varied depending on the heating rate. Under fast heating, moisture clogging and restrained stress occurred across the concrete surface, causing continuous surface spalling for the 100-MPa concrete.
Under slow heating, moisture clogging occurred, and restrained stress continuously increased in the deep area of the concrete cross-section owing to the small internal temperature difference, resulting in explosive spalling for the 100-MPa concrete with a dense internal structure. Additionally, while the tensile strength of concrete is reduced by heating, stress in the heated surface direction is generated by restrained stress.
The combination of stress in the heated concrete surface and the internal vapor pressure generates spalling. The experimental results confirm that heating rate has a significant influence on moisture migration and restrained stress occurrence inside concrete, which are important factors that determine the type of spalling.
heating rate; compressive strength; single-sided heat; vapor pressure; restrained stress; explosive spalling; ring-restrained concrete