s): Min-Yuan Cheng, Yen Chou, and Leonardus S. B. Wibowo


An experimental program consisting of four specimens was conducted to evaluate effects of different arrangements of boundary elements on cyclic responses of reinforced concrete (RC) squat walls with a shear span-to-length ratio hw/lw of 1.0.

Three test specimens were designed to have shear stress demand associated with the development of probable flexural strength. One specimen used high-strength concrete and steel; shear stress demand in this specimen was slightly reduced due to the use of high-strength concrete. Test results showed that peak strengths of all test specimens can be satisfactorily predicted by nominal flexural strength.

Deformation capacity increased more effectively in specimens using barbell-shaped boundary elements. For the two specimens having barbell-shaped special boundary elements and equivalent steel force, Specimen BB_H using high-strength steel with tested yield stress exceeding 120 ksi (827 MPa) and high-strength concrete with cylinder strength of approximately 12 ksi (83 MPa) exhibited larger deformation capacity than that of Specimen BB.


boundary element; high strength; low rise; wall