Mohammad Ali Irandegani 1,Daxu Zhang 1,*,Mahdi Shadabfar 2ORCID,Denise-Penelope N. Kontoni 3,4,*ORCID andMudassir Iqbal



Much research has been conducted and published on the examination of the behavior of reinforced steel and concrete structures with a FRP system. Nevertheless, the performance of FRP differs from that of FRCM, particularly at high temperature and ultimate strength.

The present study provides a review of previous research on structural elements (viz. beams, columns, arches, slabs, and walls) retrofitted with FRCM systems, taking account of various parameters, such as layers, composite types, configurations, and anchors for controlling or delaying failure modes (FMs).

Additionally, this paper discussed the details of different FMs observed during experimental tests, such as crushed concrete or bricks, fiber debonding from substrate materials, slippage, fiber rupture, and telescopic failure for strengthened specimens. Moreover, this paper investigated where and how fractures may develop in structural elements retrofitted with the FRCM system under various retrofit scenarios.

To this end, in addition to the review of the relevant literature, a large dataset has been compiled from different (RC) structural elements and masonry members. Next, a relationship is developed between failure modes (FMS) and influential parameters, i.e., the number of layers and the type of composite, based on this dataset. This can be used as a benchmark example in future studies, as there is no such basis available in the literature, to the best of the authors’ knowledge.



fabric-reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM); failure modes (FMs); debonding; slippage; fiber rupture