Abtin Baghdadi, Mahmoud Heristchian, Lukas Ledderose and Harald Kloft



The efficient utilization of robotic construction of structures requires a review of structural material, elements and details, while traditional construction methods face difficulties in producing some dry concrete joints, robotic methods can manufacture them efficiently.

With the rapid advancement of new construction methods, more effort should be directed towards developing new types of joints manufactureable by Additive Manufacturing (AM) methods. Accordingly, considering the potential of robotic techniques, this article proposes eight new concrete dry joints.

Concrete portal frames with two identical joints at the end of the beam are cast and evaluated under bending and shear. The performance of each joint, evaluated by experimental and numerical studies based on the crack distribution and stresses, was discussed.

Furthermore, various aspects of the process of robotic subtractive manufacturing of the connections are discussed through the selected printed/milled geometries; likewise, geometrical accuracy by microscanning was measured, proving this technique’s capability (methodology).

Based on findings, some proposed joints that can be manufactured entirely and quickly by robotic additive and subtractive techniques structurally can produce the full strength of the monolithic reference section. The rage of the capacities and initial stiffness is, accordingly, [50%, 106%] and [51%, 124%] of the monolithic elements.



prefabricated building; dry connections; robotic milling; experimental tests; finite elements; post-tensioning