Minh Ngan Vu; Wout Broere; and Johan W. Bosch



Generally, studies on structural design for bored tunnels focus on moderate to deep tunnels (cover-to-diameter ratio C/D ≥ 2).

Such tunnel design methods cannot be used for shallow-situated bored tunnels because the influence of buoyancy is discounted, and actual loads on the tunnel lining are not taken into account properly. This paper proposes a new model that has more accurate loads on the tunnel lining combined with finite-element analysis for shallow tunnels.

Internal forces and deformations of various shallow bored tunnels are investigated. The relationship between the optimal thickness-to-diameter ratio d/D of the tunnel cross section and the cover-to-diameter ratio C/D is also studied.