Manon Arrêteau, Aurélie Fabien, Badreddine El Haddaji, Daniel Chateigner, Mohammed Sonebi andNassim Sebaibi



The field of 3D printing is in rapid evolution. The 3D printing technology applied to civil engineering is a promising advancement. From equipment and mixture design to testing methods, new developments are popping up to respond to specific demands either for the fresh or hardened state. Standardizing methods are still at an early age.

For this reason, there is a multitude of 3D printers with different capabilities to print cementitious materials. In addition, norms are not applicable in 3D printing material science. Advances are being made to create new methods of testing.  The key parameters of this new 3D printing process based on stratification, multiple uses of binders, and measurement at fresh and hardened states are being perfected to achieve an industrial application.

This article gives an overview of how 3D-printed structures are made along with critical parameters that influence their performances. Our review suggests that the quality of the 3D prints is determined by the printing method, key printing parameters, and the mix design.

We list different tests to help characterize these 3D-printed cementitious materials at the fresh state and to assess their performances at the hardened state. We aim throughout this work to give a state-of-the-art of recent advances in 3D printing technology.This could help for a better understanding of cementitious materials 3D printing for current and future related research work.



3D printing; 3D printer; cementitious materials; mix design; fresh state; hardened state; durability


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