Jawad Ahmad, Ali Majdi 2ORCID,Ahmed Farouk Deifalla, Haytham F. Isleem and Cut Rahmawati



Copper slag (CPS) is a large amount of waste material produced during the manufacture of copper. The disposal of this waste material becomes a problem for environmental concerns.

Therefore, it is necessary to explore feasible alternate disposal options. They may also be utilized in concrete manufacturing to cut down on the usage of cement and natural aggregates. A lot of researchers focus on utilizing CPS in concrete, either as a cement replacement or as a filler material.

This article aims to summarize the literature already carried out on CPS in conventional concrete to identify the influence of CPS on the fresh, hardened and durability performance of cement concrete. Results indicate that CPS improved the strength and durability performance of concrete but simultaneously decreased the slump value of concrete.

Furthermore, an increase in the durability performance of concrete was also observed with CPS. However, the higher dose results declined in mechanical and durability aspects owing to a scarcity of flowability. Therefore, it is suggested to use the optimum dose of CPS.

However, a different researcher recommends a different optimum dose ranging from 50 to 60% by weight of fine aggregate depending on the source of CPS. The review also recommends future researcher guidelines on CPS in concrete.



copper slag; mechanical strength; flowability; chemical composition and microstructure analysis