While industries such as medicine, aerospace, and automotive often seem to steal the wow factor within the 3D printing spotlight, the construction zone has certainly not disappointed in terms of spectacular headlines.

And as a wide range of materials continue to prove themselves, cement has certainly been no slouch; in fact, you could spend many hours poring over the different types of research involving both cement and additive manufacturing—from experimentation with self-reinforced strain hardening composites, spray-based materials, and even self-healing systems.

Now, researchers are studying how varied calcined clay affects cement for 3D printing, with their findings released in “Effect of different grade levels of calcined clays on fresh and hardened properties of ternary-blended cementitious materials for 3D printing.”

Pointing out that concrete is often used in both particle bed- and extrusion-based 3D concrete printing (3DCP), the authors consider extrusion to be more suitable for the large scale.