Xiao-Yong Wang, Yi-Sheng Wang, Run-Sheng Lin, Hyeong-Kyu Cho



This research describes a genetic algorithm-based process for the optimization design of sustainable concrete with limestone powder.

The objective of the optimization design was set as the embodied energy. The restraints of the optimization design consist of strength, workability, and carbonation resistance along with stress.

The result of the research is shown as follows: (1) for low-strength concrete, carbonation dominates the mixture design of limestone hybrid concrete. Furthermore, the levels of stress and stress types modify the carbonation and optimization mixtures. The influence of tensile stress on optimization mixtures was much more apparent than compressive stress.

(2) For concrete with high strength, strength dominates the mixture design of limestone hybrid concrete. (3) The optimization mixtures with low carbon footprints overlapped with those with low embodied energy. In addition, the new knowledge of the research is shown as follows:

(1) find the decisive factor of concrete mixture design, (2) show a material design method considering structural stress, and (3) validate for various aims of optimal material design. In summary, the proposed model can be regarded as a common approach for the design of concrete mixture in consideration of strength, workability, carbonation resistance, and structural stress.



embodied energy; carbon footprint; limestone; optimization mixtures design; carbonation resistance